MEIR BEN ISAAC SHELI'AH ZIBBUR
- MEIR BEN ISAAC SHELI'AḤ ẒIBBUR (also called Nehorai; d. before 1096), preacher and liturgical poet of Worms. Meir was considered authoritative in the sphere of liturgy and custom among the Franco-German communities. He appears also to have compiled a custumal for the whole year. Many of the great scholars of Germany and France in his own and in the following generations frequently mention him with esteem and cite his words: Rashi in his prayer book and in his commentary to Scripture, the tosafists , Simḥah of Vitry in the Maḥzor Vitry , abraham b. azriel in his Arugat ha-Bosem, jacob moellin in his custumal, and others. Several legends were created about him. Meir compiled piyyutim and seliḥot in Hebrew and Aramaic, more than 50 of which are extant. A number of his piyyutim for the festivals were accepted by the Franco-German and Polish communities and were published innumerable times in maḥzorim and among seliẓot. The best known of his piyyutim is the Aramaic akdamut millin , which is customarily said to the present day in Ashkenazi communities during Shavuot after the reading of the first verse of the Torah reading (Ex. 19:1); a number of scholars, however, introduced the custom of saying it before the reading of the Torah. It was translated into Hebrew by gabriel polack (Literaturblatt des Orients (2 (1850), 554–5) and Ben Gorni (1851, 52–55), and by others as well. It has also been translated into other languages (into English by Joseph Marcus in Maḥzor, United Synagogue of America, 1927). Menahem b. Ḥelbo wrote commentaries on Meir's piyyutim. Two of his sons – Jacob and Isaac – are known; the latter perished in the pogroms of 1096. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zunz, Lit Poesie, 145–52, 248–50, 610; Zunz, Poesie, index; Landshuth, Ammudei, 162–7; Elbogen, Gottesdienst, 334–5; Germ Jud, 1 (1934), 446–7; E.E. Urbach (ed.), Abraham b. Azriel, Arugat ha-Bosem, 4 (1963), index; Davidson, Oẓar, 4 (1933), 432; D. Goldschmidt, in: KS, 34 (1958/59), 391–2; H. Schirmann, in Divrei ha-Akademyah ha-Le'ummit ha-Yisre'elit le-Madda'im, 3 (1969/70), 36–37, 55, 61–62. (Abraham David)
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
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PIYYUT — (Heb. פִּיּוּט; plural: piyyutim; from the Greek ποιητής), a lyrical composition intended to embellish an obligatory prayer or any other religious ceremony, communal or private. In a wider sense, piyyut is the totality of compositions composed in … Encyclopedia of Judaism
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KADDISH — (Aram. קַדִּישׁ; holy ), a doxology, most of it in Aramaic, recited with congregational responses at the close of individual sections of the public service and at the conclusion of the service itself. There are four main types of Kaddish: (a) THE … Encyclopedia of Judaism
LITURGY — has conventionally been understood as the words that Jews recite in public worship. While written words are almost all that remains from earlier times, the study of liturgy today understands that the ways that these words are performed shapes… … Encyclopedia of Judaism